Utilize este identificador para referenciar este registo: http://hdl.handle.net/10400.9/363
Título: Evaluation of the toxicity of char residues produced in the co-pyrolysis of different wastes
Autor: Bernardo, Maria
Lapa, N.
Gonçalves, Margarida
Barbosa, Rui
Mendes, Benilde
Pinto, Filomena
Palavras-chave: Toxicity
Char residues
Data: Out-2009
Citação: Bernardo, Maria; Lapa, Nuno; Gonçalves, Margarida; Barbosa, Rui; Mendes, Benilde; Pinto, Filomena. Evaluation of the toxicity of char residues produced in hte co-pyrolysis of different wastes. r Comunicação apresentada no Congresso Mundial 2009 ISWA/APESB, "Turning Waste into Ideas", realizado no Centro Cultural de Belém, Lisboa, de 12 a 15 de Outubro de 2009
Resumo: The high amounts of solid waste produced in industrial installations and in urban centers is a complex problem of today's society. The traditional strategies for solid waste transformation and disposal include and filling or incineration. Other approaches are being exploited namely waste selective collection and recycling on the energetic valorization of solid wastes through pyrolysis. In the pyrolytic process, the wastes are converted into a gaseous and liquid phase that can be used in energy production or as feedstock in chemistry industries. A solid residue (char) is also produced in a proportion that depends on the pyrolysis conditions. Even when the operating condiions are optimized in order to minimize the solid fraction, a resonable amount of chars are obtained. Those chars are mainly composed of a carbon-rich matrix that contains the mineral matter initially present in the wastes as well as components of the liquid fraction. Therefore, these solid residues have a toxicity potential due to the presence of heavy metals or organic compounds that must be assessed in order to define their safe reutilization or disposal. In the present study, the chars produced in the co-pyrolysis of plastics, pine biomass and tyres were characterized through chemical and ecotoxicological tests. A fraction of the solid chars was treated by extraction with dichloromethane. Different volatibility groups of compounds present in the extracted and non extracted char were evaluated. A selected group of heavy metals was determined in both chars. Chars were subjected to the leaching test ISO/TS 21268-2 and the resulting eluates were further characterized by determining a group of inorganic and organic parameters. An ecotoxicological characterization was performed by using he bio-indicator Vibrio fischeri. The chemical and ecotoxicological results were compared and analysed according to the council Decision 2003/33/CE and the Criteria on the Evaluation Methods of Waste Ecotoxicity (CEMWE). The results of the chemical characterization indicate that the extraction of the char residues with an appropriate organic solvent allows the sufficient elimination of the volatile organic contaminants thus decreasing the potential toxicity of these chars. The semi-volatile and non-volatile fractions were not, apparently, affected by this pre-treatment. Regarding the release of heavy metals from extracted and non-extracted chars during the leaching tests, a strong contamination with Zn was found in both eluates, which contribute to a classification of the corresponding chars as hazardous and ecotoxic materials. Also the results of the ecotoxicological characterization of the eluates led to a classification of these chars as ecotoxic materials.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/10400.9/363
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